The Step Brother of Great Shivaji called Venkoji alias Ekoji was born to the second wife of Shahaji in Bangalore and he was working under the Sultan of Bijapur during 1676 A. D. When there was a war between the Madurai Alagiri and Thanjavur Vijayaraghava Nayak the latter was killed in the war and the Minister Rayasam Venkanna took Sengamala Dass, the grandson of Vijayaraghava to the Sultan of Bijapur Adil Shah asked help to drew Alagiri. Therefore, Bijapur Sultan sent Ekoji , the valiant General to lead Bijapur army to Thanjavur. Venkoji conquered Alagiri, but Chengamala Dass was weak and unable to rule the country. He himself flew away and the Minister Venkanna asked Venkoji to take the throne. Since then, the Marathas ruled Thanjavur country for 179 years upto 1855 A.D.
Twelve Kings ruled the country, out of them Shahaji, the second was famous for his contribution to music, dance and drama. He was a valiant ruler and during his tenure, the country expanded up to Ramanathapuram. Then, King Pratapasimha fight against Chanda Sahib with the help of French in Pudhucherry and saved the Thanjavur Country. Serfoji two was the last but one who preserved the Saraswati Mahal Library from the British and spent lot of money for its maintenance. The Saraswati Mahal is named after him, because he himself collected lot of manuscripts, paintings and printed books from the British Officers. He travelled to Kasi, Benares and Orissa during 1819 and 1821. He himself contributed so many literatures, dramas and dictionary works.
The present Prince of Thanjavur is the fifth generation of King Serfoji II, and he is living in the Sadar Mahal built by Serfoji II in 1824 A.D. He is an active Board Member of the TMSSM Library & Research Centre and Managing Trustee of Rajah Second Serfoji’s Memorial Hall. In this small Museum he with his elder brother are preserving the materials used by King Serfoji’ during his life-time. The Sadar Mahal was the King’s personal Darbar and music, dance and drama were performed here in the presence of King Serfoji.
Prince Shivaji Rajah 2nd Son of Prince Tulajendra Rajah Bhosle is the only present Life member in the Board of Governors of TMSSM Library & Research Centre and he serves for the development of the Library after the demise of his father Shrimant Tulajendra Rajah P. Bhosle, who was the last Political Pensioner in the Thanjavur Maratha dynasty.